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A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1

Since it is made of transitory constituents


The

only book of the Sammitiyas known to us and that by name only is the _Sammitiyas'astra_ translated into Chinese between 350 A.D. to 431 A.D.; the original Sanskrit works are however probably lost [Footnote ref 2].

The Vaibha@sikas are identified with the Sarvastivadins who according to _Dipava@msa_ V. 47, as pointed out by Takakusu, branched off from the Mahis'asakas, who in their turn had separated from the Theravada school.

From the _Kathavatthu_ we know (1) that the Sabbatthivadins believed that everything existed, (2) that the dawn of right attainment was not a momentary flash of insight but by a gradual process, (3) that consciousness or even samadhi was nothing but

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[Footnote 1: This account is based on the translation of _A@s@tamakos'asthananibaddha@h pudgolavinis'caya@h_, a special appendix to the eighth chapter of Abhidharmakos'a, by Prof Th. Stcherbatsky, _Bulletin de l' Academie des Sciences de Russie_, 1919.]

[Footnote 2: Professor De la Vallee Poussin has collected some of the points of this doctrine in an article on the Sammitiyas in the _E. R.E._ He there says that in the _Abhidharmakos'avyakhya_ the Sammitiyas have been identified with the Vatsiputtriyas and that many of its texts were admitted by the Vaibha@sikas of a

later age. Some of their views are as follows: (1) An arhat in possession of nirvana can fall away; (2) there is an intermediate state between death and rebirth called _antarabhava_; (3) merit accrues not only by gift (_tyaganvaya_) but also by the fact of the actual use and advantage reaped by the man to whom the thing was given (_paribhoganvaya pu@nya_); (4) not only abstention from evil deeds but a declaration of intention to that end produces merit by itself alone; (5) they believe in a pudgala (soul) as distinct from the skandhas from which it can be said to be either different or non-different. "The pudgala cannot be said to be transitory (_anitye_) like the skandhas since it transmigrates laying down the burden (_skandhas_) shouldering a new burden; it cannot be said to be permanent, since it is made of transitory constituents." This pudgala doctrine of the Sammitiyas as sketched by Professor De la Vallee Poussin is not in full agreement with the pudgala doctrine of the Sammitiyas as sketched by Gu@naratna which we have noticed above.]

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a flux and (4) that an arhat (saint) may fall away [Footnote ref 1]. The Sabbatthivadins or Sarvastivadins have a vast Abhidharma literature still existing in Chinese translations which is different from the Abhidharma of the Theravada school which we have already mentioned [Footnote ref 2]. These are 1. _Jnanaprasthana S'astra_ of Katyayaniputtra which passed by the name of _Maha Vibha@sa_ from which the Sabbatthivadins who followed it are called Vaibha@sikas [Footnote ref 3]. This work is said to have been given a literary form by As'vagho@sa. 2. _Dharmaskandha_ by S'ariputtra. 3. _Dhatukaya_ by Pur@na. 4. _Prajnaptis'astra_ by Maudgalyayana. 5. _Vijnanakaya_ by Devak@sema. 6. _Sa@ngitiparyyaya_ by Sariputtra and _Prakara@napada_ by Vasumitra. Vasubandhu (420 A.D.-500 A.D.) wrote a work on the Vaibha@sika [Footnote ref 4] system in verses (_karika_) known as the _Abhidharmakos'a_, to which he appended a commentary of his own which passes by the name _Abhidharma Kos'abha@sya_ in which he pointed out some of the defects of the Vaibha@sika school from the Sautrantika point of view [Footnote ref 5]. This work was commented upon by Vasumitra and Gu@namati and later on by Yas'omitra who was himself a Sautrantika and called his work _Abhidharmakos'a vyakhya_; Sa@nghabhadra a contemporary of Vasubandhu wrote _Samayapradipa_ and _Nyayanusara_ (Chinese translations of which are available) on strict Vaibha@sika lines. We hear also of other Vaibha@sika writers such as Dharmatrata, Gho@saka, Vasumitra and Bhadanta, the writer of _Sa@myuktabhidharmas'astra_ and _Mahavibha@sa_. Di@nnaga(480 A.D.), the celebrated logician, a Vaibha@sika or a Sautrantika and reputed to be a pupil of Vasubandhu, wrote his famous work _Prama@nasamuccaya_ in which he established Buddhist logic and refuted many of the views of Vatsyayana the celebrated commentator of the _Nyaya sutras_; but we regret


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