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A history of China., [3d ed. rev. and enl.]


by WOLFRAM EBERHARD _of the University of California_


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley and Los Angeles 1969

First published in U. S. A. by _University of California Press_ _Berkeley and Los Angeles_ _California_

Second printing 1955 Third printing 1956 Second edition (revised by the author and reset) 1960 Reprinted 1966 Third edition (revised and enlarged) 1969

_To My Wife_





1 Sources for the earliest history 7 2 The Peking Man 8 3 The Palaeolithic Age 8 4 The Neolithic Age 9 5 The eight principal prehistoric cultures 10 6 The Yang-shao culture 12 7 The Lung-shan culture 15 8 The first petty States in Shansi 16

Chapter II: THE SHANG DYNASTY (_c._ 1600-1028 B.C.)

1 Period, origin, material culture 19 2 Writing and Religion 22 3 Transition to feudalism 24


Chapter III: THE CHOU DYNASTY (_c._ 1028-257 B.C.)

1 Cultural origin of the Chou and end of the Shang dynasty 29 2 Feudalism in the new empire 30 3 Fusion of Chou and Shang 32 4 Limitation of the imperial power 36 5 Changes in the relative strength of the feudal states 38 6 Confucius 40 7 Lao Tzu 45

Chapter IV: THE CONTENDING STATES (481-256 B.C.):


1 Social and military changes 51 2 Economic changes 53 3 Cultural changes 57

Chapter V: THE CHIN DYNASTY (256-207 B.C.)

1 Towards the unitary State 62 2 Centralization in every field 64 3 Frontier Defence. Internal collapse 67


Chapter VI: THE HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C.-A.D. 220)

1 Development of the gentry-state 71 2 Situation of the Hsiung-nu empire; its relation to the Han empire. Incorporation of South China 75 3 Brief feudal reaction. Consolidation of the gentry 77 4 Turkestan policy. End of the Hsiung-nu empire 86 5 Impoverishment. Cliques. End of the Dynasty 90 6 The pseudo-socialistic dictatorship. Revolt of the "Red Eyebrows" 93 7 Reaction and Restoration: the Later Han dynasty 96 8 Hsiung-nu policy 97 9 Economic situation. Rebellion of the "Yellow Turbans". Collapse of the Han dynasty 99 10 Literature and Art 103

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