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A History of Rome to 565 A. D. by Boak

1 the elder Caius Plinius Secundus


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of, due to Gracchan laws,

131; reduced to serfdom, 288-292. Perfectissimate, the, 343. Pergamon, kingdom of, 70; enlarged by Romans, 94; willed to Rome, 103. M. Perperna, leader of Marian faction, 152, 153. Perseus, son of Philip V, and king of Macedonia, war with Rome, 95, 96. Persians, the, campaign of Severus Alexander against, 257; of Valerian, 259; of Carus, 263; of Diocletian, 319; of Constantius II and Julian, 326-328; of Valens, 329; wars with Eastern Empire, 363, 366; Justinian's war with, 379, 381. Pertinax (Publius Helvius ----), principate of, 252. Perusia, 191. C. Petronius, writer, 299. Phalanx, the, in Roman army, 58-59. Pharisees, the, 238. Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, makes peace with Pompey, 161; defeated by Caesar, 177. Pharsalus, battle of, 176. Philip V, king of Macedonia, at war with AEtolians, 76; becomes an ally of Carthage, 82; at war with Rome, AEtolians, and Pergamon, 83; concludes peace, 85; alliance with Antiochus III against Egypt, 89; second war with Rome, 90, 91; cedes Greek possession to Rome, 91; supports Rome against Antiochus, 93; later hostility to Rome, 95. Philippi, battle of, 190. Philosophy, under
the Principate, 302, 307. Phoenicians, the, _see_ Carthaginians. Phraates IV, king of the Parthians, 221. Picentes, the, 15, 39, 44. _ Pietas_, Roman conception of, 65. Pilum, javelin, adopted in Roman army, 59. Piraeus, Athens and, besieged by Sulla, 144. Pirates, depredations of, 137; Roman, 137; command of Marcus Antonius against, in 74 B. C., 154; command of Pompey against, 159, 160. Piso, _see_ C. Calpurnius Piso. Placidia, Roman princess, 354, 358. Placentia, 78. Plague, the, of 166 A. D., 250; of 252 A. D., 259. Plantation system, the, 115, 197; transformation of, under Principate, 291; growth of, under late Empire, 348. Plautus (Titus Maccius ----), dramatist, 120. Plebeians, the, definition of, and status in early Rome, 30; struggle for equality with patricians, 52-58; admitted to consulship, 55, 56; in Senate, 56; secession to Janiculum, 57. Plebiscites (_plebi scita_), 55; binding without Senate's previous sanction, 57. Plebs, the, (1) _see_ Plebeians; (2) of later Republic, 197; under Augustus, 211, 222; colleges of, 285, 286. Pliny, (1) the elder (Caius Plinius Secundus), writer, 299; (2) the younger (C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus), letters of, 300. Plotinus, philosopher, 302. Plutarch, Greek writer, 302. Poetry, (1) Roman, or Latin, of third and second centuries, B. C., 120-121; of last century of the Republic, 199-200; of the Principate, 298-300;


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