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A Handbook of Laboratory Glass-Blowing by Bolas

A HANDBOOK OF LABORATORY GLASS-BLOWING

_To my Friends Eric Reid and Sidney Wilkinson_

A Handbook of Laboratory Glass-Blowing

BY

BERNARD D. BOLAS

WITH NUMEROUS DIAGRAMS IN THE TEXT

BY NAOMI BOLAS

[Illustration]

LONDON GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LTD NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO. 1921

CONTENTS

CHAP. PAGE

I. Introduction and Preliminary Remarks--General Principles to be observed in Glass Working--Choice of Apparatus--Tools and Appliances--Glass 1

II. Easy Examples of Laboratory Glass-Blowing--Cutting and Sealing Tubes, Tubes for High Temperature Experiments--Thermometer-Bulbs, Bulbs of Special Glass, Pipettes, Absorption-Bulbs or Washing Bulbs--Joining Tubes, Branches, Exhaustion-Branches, Branches of Dissimilar Glass, Blowing Bulbs, A Thistle Funnel, Cracking and Breaking Glass, Leading and Direction of Cracks--Use of Glass Rod or Strips of Window-Glass, Joining Rod, Feet and Supports--Gripping Devices for use in Corrosive Solutions--The Building up of Special Forms from Solid Glass 10

III. Internal Seals, Air-Traps, Spray Arresters, Filter-Pumps--Sprays, Condensers; plain, double surface, and spherical--Soxhlet Tubes and Fat Extraction Apparatus--Vacuum Tubes, Electrode Work, Enclosed Thermometers, Alarm Thermometers ... Recording Thermometers, "Spinning" Glass 32

IV. Glass, its Composition and Characteristics--Annealing--Drilling, Grinding, and Shaping Glass by methods other than Fusion--Stopcocks--Marking Glass--Calibration and Graduation of Apparatus--Thermometers--Exhaustion of Apparatus--Joining Glass and Metal--Silvering Glass 55

V. Extemporised Glass-Blowing Apparatus--The use of Oil or other Fuels--Making Small Rods and Tubes from Glass Scraps--The Examination of Manufactured Apparatus with a view to Discovering the Methods used in Manufacture--Summary of Conditions necessary for Successful Glass-Blowing 80

Index 105

PREFACE

To cover the whole field of glass-blowing in a small handbook would be impossible. To attempt even a complete outline of the methods used in making commercial apparatus would involve more than could be undertaken without omitting the essential details of manipulation that a novice needs. I have, therefore, confined myself as far as possible to such work as will find practical application in the laboratory and will, I hope, prove of value to those whose interests lie therein.

The method of treatment and somewhat disjointed style of writing have been chosen solely with the view to economy of space without the undue sacrifice of clearness.

BERNARD D. BOLAS.

Handbook of Laboratory Glass-Blowing


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