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A History of Germany by Bayard Taylor

Excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX

1142. Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

1142. Albert the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg.

1147. The second Crusade.

1152--1190. Frederick I., Barbarossa.

1163. Union of the Lombard cities.

1176. Barbarossa's defeat at Legnano.

1177. Reconciliation with the Pope at Venice.

1179. Otto of Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria.

1181. Henry the Lion banished.

1183. The Peace of Constance.

1190. The third Crusade; death of Barbarossa; foundation of the German Order.

1190--1197. Henry VI. (receives also Naples and Sicily).

1192. Richard of the Lion-Heart imprisoned.

1195. Death of Henry the Lion.

1197--1208. Philip of Suabia; Otto IV. of Brunswick rival Emperor; civil wars.

1208. Murder of Philip of Suabia.

1212. Frederick II., Hohenstaufen, comes to Germany.

1215--1250. Frederick

II.'s reign.

1226. The German Order occupies Prussia.

1227. Frederick II. excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX.

1228. The fifth Crusade, led by Frederick II.

1235. Rebellion of Frederick's son, Henry.

1237. Frederick II.'s victory at Cortenuovo.

1245. Pope Innocent IV. excommunicates the Emperor.

1247. Death of Henry Raspe, Anti-Emperor.

1250. Foundation of the Hanseatic League.

1250--1254. Konrad IV.

1254. Union of cities of the Rhine.

1256. Death of William of Holland, Anti-Emperor.

1266. Battle of Benevento; death of King Manfred.

1268. Konradin's march to Italy, defeat, and execution.

THIRD PERIOD. (1254--1517.)

=Emperors of Various Houses.=

1256. Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile elected.

1273--1291. Rudolf of Hapsburg, Emperor.

1278. Defeat of King Ottokar of Bohemia.

1291--1298. Adolf of Nassau.

1291. Union of three Swiss Cantons.

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