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A History of the Reformation (Vol. 1 of 2)

Wittenberger Heiligthumsbuch vom Jahre 1509

148 Of course, Luther's intense individuality appeared in his language from the first. Take as an example a note on Ps. lxxxiv. 4: "As the meadow is to the cow, the house to the man, the nest to the bird, the rock to the chamois, and the stream to the fish, so is the Holy Scripture to the believing soul."

149 The expression is interesting, because it shows that Luther's influence had made at least two of his colleagues change their views. Nicholas Amsdorf and Andrew Bodenstein of Carlstadt had come to Wittenberg to teach Scholastic Theology, and Amsdorf had made a great name for himself as an exponent of the older type of that theology.

150 An illustrated catalogue of Frederick's collection of relics was prepared by Lucas Cranach, and published under the title, _Wittenberger Heiligthumsbuch vom Jahre 1509_. It has been reprinted by G. Hirth of Munich in his _Liebhaber-Bibliothek alter Illustratoren in Facsimile-Reproduktion,_ No. vi.

151 "Amore et studio elucidandae veritatis haec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenbergae, praesidente R. P. Martino Lutther, artium et sacrae theologiae magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis praesentes nobiscum disceptare, agant id literis absentes. In nomine Domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen."

style="text-align: justify;"> 152 SOURCES: Thomas Aquinas, _Summa Theologiae, Supplementum Tertiae Partis_, Quaestiones xxv.-xxvii.; Alexander of Hales, _Summa Theologiae_, iv.; Bonaventura, _Opera Omnia; In Librum Quartum Sententiarum_, dist. xx.; vol. v. 264 tf. (Moguntiae, 1609); Denzinger, _Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum, quae de rebus fidei et morum a conciliis oecumenicis et summis pontificibus emanarunt_, 9th ed. (Wuerzburg, 1900), p. 175; Koehler, _Documenta zum Ablassstreit von 1517_ (Tuebingen, 1902).

LATER BOOKS: F. Beringer (Soc. Jes.), _Der Ablass, sein Wesen und Gebrauch_, 12th ed. (Paderborn, 1898); Bouvier, _Treatise on Indulgences_ (London, 1848); Lea, _A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgence in the Latin Church_, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 1896); Brieger, _Das Wesen des Ablasses am Ausgange des Mittelalters_ (Leipzig, 1897); Harnack, _History of Dogma_, vi. pp. 243-270; Goetz, "Studien zur Geschichte des Buss-sacraments" in _Zeitschrift fuer Kirchengeschichte_, xv. 321 ff., xvi. 541 ff.; Schneider, _Der Ablass_ (1881); _Cambridge Modern History_, II. iv.

153 The use of the word _satisfaction_ to denote an outward sign of sorrow for sin which was supposed to be well-pleasing to God and to afford reasonable ground for the congregation restoring a lapsed member, is very old--much older than the use of the word to denote the work of Christ. It is found as early as the time of Tertullian and Cyprian.

154 Tertullian was no believer in any indulgence shown to penitent sinners, and his account of the way in which penitents appeared before the congregation to ask for a remission or mitigation of the ecclesiastical sentence pronounced against them is doubtless a caricature, but it may be taken as a not unfair description of what must have frequently taken place: "You introduce into the Church the penitent adulterer for the purpose of melting the brotherhood by his supplications. You lead him into the midst, clad in sackcloth, covered with ashes, a compound of disgrace and horror. He prostrates himself before the widows, before the elders, suing for the tears of all; he seizes the edges of their garments, he clasps their knees, he kisses the prints of their feet. Meanwhile you harangue the people and excite their pity for the sad lot of the penitent. Good pastor, blessed father that you are, you describe the coming back of your goat in recounting the parable of the lost sheep. And in case your ewe lamb may take another leap out of the fold ... you fill all the rest of the flock with apprehension at the very moment of granting indulgence."--(_De Pudicitia_, 13.)

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