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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

[Illustration: MAP OF SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

COMPILED BY CHARLES E. CHAPMAN]

A HISTORY OF SPAIN

[Illustration: colophon]

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO DALLAS ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., LIMITED

LONDON BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD.

TORONTO

A HISTORY OF SPAIN

FOUNDED ON THE _HISTORIA DE ESPA?A Y DE LA CIVILIZACI?N ESPA?OLA_ OF RAFAEL ALTAMIRA

BY

CHARLES E. CHAPMAN, PH.D.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

New York THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918

_All rights reserved_

COPYRIGHT, 1918,

BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Set up and electrotyped. Published October, 1918.

Norwood Press

J. S. Cushing Co.--Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.

TO MY SON

SEVILLE DUDLEY CHAPMAN

BORN IN THE CITY WHOSE NAME HE BEARS

PREFACE

The present work is an attempt to give in one volume the main features of Spanish history from the standpoint of America. It should serve almost equally well for residents of both the English-speaking and the Spanish American countries, since the underlying idea has been that Americans generally are concerned with the growth of that Spanish civilization which was transmitted to the new world. One of the chief factors in American life today is that of the relations between Anglo-Saxon and Hispanic America. They are becoming increasingly important. The southern republics themselves are forging ahead; on the other hand many of them are still dangerously weak, leaving possible openings for the not unwilling old world powers; and some of the richest prospective markets of the globe are in those as yet scantily developed lands. The value of a better understanding between the peoples of the two Americas, both for the reasons just named and for many others, scarcely calls for argument. It is almost equally clear that one of the essentials to such an understanding is a comprehension of Spanish civilization, on which that of the Spanish American peoples so largely depends. That information this volume aims to provide. It confines itself to the story of the growth of Spanish civilization in Spain, but its ultimate transfer to the Americas has been constantly in the writer's mind in the choice of his material, as will appear from the frequent allusions in the text. An attempt is made to treat Spanish institutions not as static (which they never were) but in process of evolution, from period to period. The development of Spanish institutions in the colonies and the later independent states, it is hoped, will be the subject of another volume. Neither story has ever been presented according to the present plan to the American public.

Emphasis here has been placed on the growth of the civilization, or institutions, of Spain rather than on the narrative of political events. The latter appears primarily as a


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