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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

And in 1696 completed his Bibliotheca hispana vetus

external political narrative,

from the Castilian point of view, of the events which had developed the national unity of Spain. His own bias, politically and otherwise, was only too apparent, besides which he displayed the faults of credulity and imagination already alluded to. Nevertheless, Mariana made use of manuscripts and the evidence of inscriptions and coins, though not to the same degree as Zurita, Morales, and others. His style was tinged with the Humanistic ideals of the period, being strongly influenced by Livy. Many other students of history or of the sciences auxiliary to history are deserving of recognition, and at least one of them demands mention, Nicol?s Antonio, the greatest bibliographer of his time. In 1672 he published his _Bibliotheca hispana_ (republished in 1788 as the _Bibliotheca hispana nova_, or Catalogue of new Spanish works) of all Spanish works since 1500, and in 1696 completed his _Bibliotheca hispana vetus_, or Catalogue of old Spanish works (published in 1788), of Spanish books, manuscript and printed, prior to the sixteenth century. Deserving of special notice was a remarkable group of historians of the Americas, such as Fernando Col?n (Ferdinand Columbus), Fern?ndez de Oviedo, L?pez de G?mara, Bernal D?az del Castillo, Bernab? Cobos, Guti?rrez de Santa Clara, Juan de Castellanos, Acosta, Garcilaso de la Vega, Herrera, Cieza de Le?n, Z?rate, Jerez, Dorantes de Carranza, G?ngora, Hev?a, Le?n Pinelo, Mendieta, Pizarro, Sahag?n, Su?rez de Peralta, Alvarado, Torquemada, Sol?s,
Cort?s, Las Casas, Cervantes de Salazar, L?pez de Velasco, the already cited Sol?rzano, P?rez de Ribas, Tello, Florencia, Vetancurt, and many others. The works of some of these men were written in Spain as official chronicles of the Indies, while those of others were prepared independently in the Americas. Religious history was abundantly produced, as also were books of travel, especially those based on the expeditions and discoveries in the Indies. In all of the historical production of the era, not merely in the work of Mariana, the influence of classical models was marked.

[Sidenote: The conquest of the Americas and resultant Spanish achievements in natural science, geography, and cartography.]

If the output of Spaniards in the domain of the natural sciences was not so great as in the realm of philosophy, jurisprudence, and history, it was nevertheless distinctively original in character,--necessarily so, since the discovery of new lands and new routes, to say nothing of the effects of continuous warring, not only invited investigation, but also made it imperative, in order to overcome hitherto unknown difficulties. In dealing with the Americas a practice was made of gathering geographical data which for its completeness has scarcely ever been surpassed. Explorers were required by law to make the most detailed observations as to distances, general geographical features, character of the soil, products, animals, and peoples, with a view to the collection and the study of their reports at the _Casa de Contrataci?n_, for which purpose the post of cosmographical chronicler of the Indies was created. Equal amplitude of data was also to be found

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