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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

Granada and Catalonia thirty four each

-------------------------------+------------+----------- | 1787 | 1797 -------------------------------+------------+----------- Ecclesiastics | 182,425 | 168,248 Nobles | 480,589 | 402,059 Employees (of the government?) | 41,014 | 31,981 Soldiery | 77,884 | 149,340 Students | 50,994 | 29,812 Farmers and (farm?) laborers | 1,871,768 | 1,677,172 Manufacturers and artisans | 310,739 | 533,769 Servants | 280,092 | 174,095 Merchants | No figures | 25,685 -------------------------------+------------+-----------

The discrepancies between the two columns are in part accounted for by the fact that Spain was at peace in 1787, and at war with England in 1797. In a total of some 3,000,000 workers it is notable that the majority were devoted to agricultural pursuits (including about 100,000 engaged in pastoral labors), showing that the cultivation of the soil was the principal basis of the national life. The vast number of ecclesiastics, nobles, and servants, nearly a third of the total, is eloquent of the social problem which the government had to face. In the course of ten years they had fallen away to less than a fourth of the whole. Statistics as to density of population showed Guip?zcoa, Valencia, Asturias, Navarre,

and Vizcaya in the lead, with respectively eighty, forty-eight, forty-seven, forty-three, and forty-two inhabitants to the square kilometer. Andalusia had thirty-nine, Granada and Catalonia thirty-four each, Aragon only twenty-one, while Extremadura with fourteen and La Mancha and Cuenca with thirteen each brought up the rear. In total population Galicia led with 1,345,000. Catalonia had 814,412, Valencia 783,084, Andalusia 754,293, Granada 661,661, and Aragon 623,308. Large urban groups were rare; there were fewer than forty cities with a population of 10,000, and seventeen of them were in Andalusia. The four largest cities were Madrid (156,000), Barcelona (115,000), Seville (96,000), and Valencia (80,000). Economic prosperity did not correspond exactly with these figures, for the factors of climate, soil, irrigation, and nearness to the sea entered into the situation.

[Sidenote: Wretched state of domestic life.]

[Sidenote: Obstacles in the way of economic reforms.]

Despite the great body of reforms carried out, the problem was overwhelming, and much of the country was still in a backward state at the end of the era. Aragon and Old Castile were in a miserable condition, not nearly equalling their agricultural possibilities, and La Mancha was in a far worse plight. The number of large-sized towns in Andalusia gave that land an appearance of wealth and prosperity which was not borne out by the facts, if the situation of the country districts were taken into account. The character of Spanish houses at this time was

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