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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

Of the painters Zuloaga successor of El Greco


Spain's intellectual renaissance.]

In no element of the national life has the well-being of Spain since 1898 been more clearly demonstrated than in the realm of things intellectual. On the educational and scientific side (with one exception, presently to be noted), the achievement has not been great enough to attract attention, but in those branches of human knowledge which are akin to the emotions Spain has embarked upon a new _siglo de oro_ which has already placed her in the forefront of the nations in the wealth and beauty of her contemporary literature and art. Many writers or artists of note did their work before 1898, while others stand athwart that year, but the most remarkable development has come in the more recent period--a growing force which is far from having run its course. Thus, before 1898, there were such poets as Becquer, Campoamor, N??ez de Arce, Rosal?a de Castro, and Salvador Rueda; novelists like Alarc?n, Pereda, Valera, "Clar?n," Pic?n, Palacio Vald?s, Pardo Baz?n, and P?rez Gald?s; dramatists including Ayala, Tamayo, Echegaray, P?rez Gald?s, Guimer?, and Dicenta; critics and philologists like Mil? Fontanals, Valera, "Clar?n," and Men?ndez y Pelayo; essayists such as Alfredo Calder?n, Morote, Picavea, Ganivet, and Unamuno; painters like Pradilla, Ferr?n, and Mu?oz Degrain; and composers of music including Arrieta, Gastambide, Chueca, Chap?, Bret?n, and Fern?ndez Caballero. Some of the more notable of these belong also

in the post-1898 group, and to them should be added, among others, the following: poets--Rub?n Dar?o (who is included in this list, though he is a Nicaraguan, because of his influence on Spanish poetry), Villaespesa, Marquina, Ram?n D. Per?s, the two Machados, Mesa, Diez Canedo, Mu?oz San Rom?n, and Maragall; novelists--Blasco Ib??ez, P?o Baroja, "Azor?n," Silverio Lanza, Valle Incl?n, Ricardo Le?n, Alberto Ins?a, P?rez de Ayala, Mart?nez Sierra, Mir?, and Felipe Trigo; dramatists--Benavente, Mart?nez Sierra, the brothers ?lvarez Quintero, Carlos Arniches, Linares Rivas, Marquina, Rusi?ol, and Iglesias; critics and philologists--Men?ndez Pidal, Bonilla, Rodr?guez Mar?n, Said Armesto, Am?rico Castro, Cejador, Alomar, Tenreiro, and Gonz?lez Blanco; essayists--Ortega Gasset, Maeztu, "Azor?n," G?mez de Baquero, Manuel Bueno, Maragall, and Zulueta; painters--Zuloaga, Sorolla, the brothers Zubiaurre, Benedito, Chicharro, Villegas, Nieto, Beruete, Moreno Carbonero, Bilbao, Sotomayor, Anglada, de la G?ndara, Juan Lafita, and Rusi?ol; sculptors--Blay, Benlliure, Marinas, Clar?, and Julio Antonio; architects--Gaud?, Puig, Vel?zquez, and Palacios; composers--Alb?niz, Pedrell, Turina, Granados, Falla, Vives, Serrano, and Quinito Valverde; and educators--Giner de los R?os and Coss?o. Spain has also produced historians and historical scholars of note in recent years (though several of them belong in the pre-1898 group), among whom should be reckoned C?novas del Castillo, Danvila y Collado, Hinojosa, Rafael Altamira, Colmeiro, Fidel Fita, Fern?ndez Duro, Men?ndez y Pelayo, Torres Lanzas, and Fern?ndez Guerra. Special mention should be made of the novelists P?rez Gald?s (author of the famous _Episodios nacionales_, or National episodes,--a series of historical novels from the Liberal point of view, covering the history of Spain from the time of Godoy to the present,--and esteemed by many as one of the most remarkable literary geniuses of modern times) and Blasco Ib??ez (who has used the novel as a vehicle for an attack on the old order of Spanish life); of the dramatists Jacinto Benavente (a man whom many regard as deserving to rank with the greatest names of all time in Spanish literature), P?rez Gald?s (who is almost equally notable in the drama as in the novel), the brothers ?lvarez Quintero (who have so clearly depicted modern Andalusian life), and Mart?nez Sierra (whose comedies reach to the very roots of truth and beauty); of Men?ndez y Pelayo, most famous as a critic, said to have been the dominant figure of recent years in Spanish literature; of the painters Zuloaga (successor of El Greco, Vel?zquez, and Goya, whose works embrace both the mysticism and the austerity of the Spanish national spirit) and Sorolla (a symbolist, who has done with the brush what Blasco Ib??ez did with the pen, and whose paintings, mainly of Valencian scenes, are full of realism and naturalism, brilliant in expression and color); and of Giner de los R?os, opponent of the church, but a man of tremendous influence on the thought of modern Spain. It is to be noted that the leading names in the realm of art are all in the post-1898 period; indeed, this form of intellectual manifestation was not in a flourishing state before that time. And in the midst of all these names one must not forget that of Santiago Ram?n y Cajal, whose discoveries in histology have made him famous throughout the world. Many characterize him as the greatest Spaniard of the present day.

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