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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

Especially in the time of Diocletian


So called from the localities in Germany where bones of men of this type were discovered.

[5] The inhabitants of the Canary Islands, a Spanish group off the northwest coast of Africa, are of this race. They preserved their racial characteristics with great purity until the fifteenth century, since which time more and more intermixture has taken place.

[6] As an illustration of the close relationship between Spain and northern Africa it may be mentioned that the diocese of Spain under Diocletian included the province of Mauretania, or northern Africa. A seventh province was formed of the Balearic Islands.

[7] Many of these city camps date from the period of Augustus, whose name appears in most of them, _e.g._: _C?saria Augusta_ (Saragossa); _Urbs Septima Legionis_ (Le?n); _Asturica Augusta_ (Astorga) _Lucas Augusti_ (Lugo); _Emerita Augusta_ (M?rida); _Pax Augusta_ (Badajoz); and _Bracara Augusta_ (Braga).

[8] Spain contributed its share of martyrs during the periods of persecution, especially in the time of Diocletian. San Vicente of Valencia, Santa Eulalia of M?rida, San Severo of Barcelona, Santa Leocadia of Toledo, and Santa Engracia of Saragossa were among those put to death in Diocletian's reign.

[9] This term, characterized by Joaqu?n Escriche (_Diccionario razonado de legislaci?n y jurisprudencia_.

Madrid, 1847) as "barbarous," is about equivalent to "Charter of the laws."

[10] Named for him, Gebel-al-Tarik, or hill of Tarik.

[11] Near Medina Sidonia and Vejer.

[12] Province of Salamanca.

[13] The laws themselves furnish numerous indications of the customary evils. Doctors, for example, were forbidden to cure women, unless in the presence of certain specified persons. It may be added that doctors were made responsible by law for the effect of their medicines.

[14] One curious superstitious practice was that of celebrating a mass for an enemy who was yet alive. It was believed that this would accelerate his death.

[15] The word "count" was not at that time a title of nobility.

[16] The figures are 300,000 and 5,408,000 dinars respectively, or roughly $700,000 and $12,600,000. It is of course impossible to reckon the comparative purchasing power of a dinar then and its equivalent today, although it was no doubt much greater then; hence, the above figures have only a relative value.

[17] Almansor burned great numbers of philosophical works so as to win the favor of the Mohammedan priesthood.

[18] Rueda continued independent,--an unimportant exception.

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