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A History of Spain by Charles E. Chapman

Godoy won the title of Prince of the Peace


[46]

Literally "corrector." While the royal agent of this name might originally have been considered a "corrector" rather than an administrator, he later came to rule over areas ranging from that of a city to a province, with wide judicial and executive functions.

[47] In 1283 the General Privilege was added as book eight, for there had been the usual seven parts in the code of Jaime I; in 1300 the reforms of Jaime II; in 1348 those of Pedro IV; and finally those of Juan I and Mart?n I.

[48] In medieval schools grammar, rhetoric, and logic (comprising the _trivium_) were the principal studies, supplemented by arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music (or the _quadrivium_). These subjects were almost unrecognizably unlike those of the same names today.

[49] See page 110.

[50] The Basque game, with which the people of Navarre were equally familiar. This game bears no resemblance to American base-ball; rather it is more like a combination of tennis and hand-ball. At the present time the players, three on a side, use a kind of bat, or racket, and a leather-covered, solid rubber ball. The ball is served against a side wall, and must be made to bound back over a net. The ball is thus kept in play until one side misses a return, which scores a point for the opponents. The side first making a required number of points wins the match.

justify;">[51] After referring to the wealth of jewelry worn by the women of his time a Moslem writer goes on to say, "The women of Granada are beautiful, being distinguished for the symmetry of their figures, the gracefulness of their bodies, the length and waviness of their hair, the whiteness and brilliance of their teeth, the perfume of their breath, the pleasing lightness of their movements, the cleverness of their speech, and the charm of their conversation."

[52] See p. 159.

[53] Cf. p. 155, n. 3.

[54] The _real_ was a former Spanish coin of elusive value. Prior to the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella it was worth slightly more than ninety _maraved?s_ and after that reign slightly less than eighty-nine. Today the _real_ of copper (a theoretical coin) is worth thirty-four _maraved?s_ and the _real_ of silver sixty-eight. As the _maraved?_ (which is no longer coined) was worth about a sixth of a cent in present-day United States money, it will be seen that the _real_ has ranged from about fifteen to five cents in value. These amounts do not, of course, represent the actual value, or purchasing power, of the _real_. That cannot be determined, but it was certainly many times greater than it would be today.

[55] The two most important, those of Valladolid and Granada, were distinguished from the others by being called _chanciller?as_.

[56] Compare the figures on population given at page 333.

[57] The addition of the name "de Jes?s" to that of some of the mystics came from their assertions of a marriage with Christ, according to which fact their names, in Spanish fashion, required this indication of their marital partner.

[58] The best place to see them is in the Vel?zquez room of the Prado at Madrid.

[59] The British settlement was abandoned in 1774, after which the Spaniards returned. Following the establishment of Argentine independence that country occupied the Falklands, and still claims them. Since 1833, however, they have been in the possession of England.

[60] For negotiating this treaty, which certainly did not redound greatly to the advantage of Spain, Godoy won the title of Prince of the Peace.

[61] Those who have lived in Spanish boarding-houses (_fondas_) in our own times will recognize that this description lacks very little of fitting contemporary Spain.

[62] See note at page 196.

[63] The Jansenists were a sect within the Catholic Church following the teachings of Cornelis Jansen (1585-1638), who relied upon the tenets of Saint Augustine as the basis for a reform of the church. They were opposed to the doctrine of papal infallibility, and were bitter enemies of the Jesuits, besides differing from other Catholics in certain points of dogma. Their views were eventually pronounced heretical.

[64] On the basis of the usual size of Spanish families, this would have meant one churchman to every five to ten adult men.

[65] One well-known case of clerical impropriety was that of the two ambitious priests whom Queen Mar?a Luisa employed as spies to keep her informed whether Godoy were faithful to her or not.

[66] A _fanega_ equals about 1.59 acres.

[67] There were some relatively unimportant combats after this date, and Spain did not acknowledge defeat until 1836.

[68] Belloc, Hilaire, "_The International_," in _The Dublin Review_, v. CXLVI, nos. 292-293, pp. 167-181, 396-411. London. Jan. and Apr., 1910. This is an article about the Ferrer case.


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