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A History of Sanskrit Literature by MacDonell

Its third section resembles the Paraskara Grihya Sutra


the other hand, the effect of Hindu medical science upon the Arabs after about 700 A.D. was considerable, for the Khalifs of Bagdad caused several books on the subject to be translated. The works of Charaka and Sucruta (probably not later than the fourth century A.D.) were rendered into Arabic at the close of the eighth century, and are quoted as authorities by the celebrated Arabic physician Al-Razi, who died in 932 A.D. Arabic medicine in its turn became the chief authority, down to the seventeenth century, of European physicians. By the latter Indian medical authors must have been thought highly of, for Charaka is repeatedly mentioned in the Latin translations of the Arab writers Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Rhazes (Al-Razi), and Serapion (Ibn Sarafyun). In modern days European surgery has borrowed the operation of rhinoplasty, or the formation of artificial noses, from India, where Englishmen became acquainted with the art in the last century.

We have already seen that the discovery of the Sanskrit language and literature led, in the present century, to the foundation of the two new sciences of Comparative Mythology and Comparative Philology. Through the latter it has even affected the practical school-teaching of the classical languages in Europe. The interest in Buddhism has already produced an immense literature in Europe. Some of the finest lyrics of Heine, and works like Sir Edwin Arnold's Light of Asia, to mention only a few instances, have

drawn their inspiration from Sanskrit poetry. The intellectual debt of Europe to Sanskrit literature has thus been undeniably great; it may perhaps become greater still in the years that are to come.



On Sanskrit legal literature in general, consult the very valuable work of Jolly, Recht und Sitte, in Buehler's Encyclopaedia, 1896 (complete bibliography). There are several secondary Dharma Sutras of the post-Vedic period. The most important of these is the Vaishnava Dharma Castra or Vishnu Smriti (closely connected with the Kathaka Grihya Sutra), not earlier than 200 A.D. in its final redaction (ed. by Jolly, Calcutta, 1881, trans. by him in the Sacred Books of the East, Oxford, 1880). The regular post-Vedic lawbooks are metrical (mostly in clokas). They are much wider in scope than the Dharma Sutras, which are limited to matters connected with religion. The most important and earliest of the metrical Smritis is the Manava Dharma Castra, or Code of Manu, not improbably based on a Manava Dharma Sutra. It is closely connected with the Mahabharata, of which three books alone (iii., xii., xvi.) contain as many as 260 of its 2684 clokas. It probably assumed its present shape not much later than 200 A.D. It was ed. by Jolly, London, 1887; trans. by Buehler, with valuable introd., in the Sacred Books, Oxford, 1886; also trans. by Burnell (ed. by Hopkins), London, 1884; text ed., with seven comm., by Mandlik, Bombay, 1886; text, with Kulluka's comm., Bombay, 1888, better than Nirn. Sag. Pr., ed. 1887. Next comes the Yajnavalkya Dharma Castra, which is much more concise (1009 clokas). It was probably based on a Dharma Sutra of the White Yajurveda; its third section resembles the Paraskara Grihya Sutra, but it is unmistakably connected with the Manava Grihya Sutra of the Black Yajurveda. Its approximate date seems to be about 350 A.D. Its author probably belonged to Mithila, capital of Videha (Tirhut). Yajnavalkya, ed. and trans, by

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