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An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical An

Calcium oxalate is nearly insoluble in water


precipitate may, if preferred, be placed in a weighted porcelain crucible. After burning off the filter and heating for ten minutes the calcium precipitate may be converted into calcium sulphate by placing 2 cc. of dilute sulphuric acid in the crucible (cold), heating the covered crucible very cautiously over a low flame to drive off the excess of acid, and finally at redness to constant weight (Note 7).

From the weight of the oxide or sulphate, calculate the percentage of the calcium (Ca) in the limestone, remembering that only one fifth of the total solution is used for this determination.

[Note 1: If the calcium were precipitated from the entire solution, the quantity of the precipitate would be greater than could be properly treated. The solution is, therefore, diluted to a definite volume (500 cc.), and exactly one fifth (100 cc.) is measured off in a graduated flask or by means of a pipette.]

[Note 2: The filtrate from the calcium oxalate should be made slightly acid immediately after filtration, in order to avoid the solvent action of the alkaline liquid upon the glass.]

[Note 3: The accurate quantitative separation of calcium and magnesium as oxalates requires considerable care. The calcium precipitate usually carries down with it some magnesium, and this can best be removed by redissolving the precipitate after filtration, and reprecipitation

in the presence of only the small amount of magnesium which was included in the first precipitate. When, however, the proportion of magnesium is not very large, the second precipitation of the calcium can usually be avoided by precipitating it from a rather dilute solution (800 cc. or so) and in the presence of a considerable excess of the precipitant, that is, rather more than enough to convert both the magnesium and calcium into oxalates.]

[Note 4: The ionic changes involved in the precipitation of calcium as oxalate are exceedingly simple, and the principles discussed in connection with the barium sulphate precipitation on page 113 also apply here. The reaction is

C_{2}O_{4}^{--} + Ca^{++} --> [CaC_{2}O_{4}].

Calcium oxalate is nearly insoluble in water, and only very slightly soluble in acetic acid, but is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. This behavior with acids is explained by the fact that oxalic acid is a stronger acid than acetic acid; when, therefore, the oxalate is brought into contact with the latter there is almost no tendency to diminish the concentration of C_{2}O_{4}^{--} ions by the formation of an acid less dissociated than the acetic acid itself, and practically no solvent action ensues. When a strong mineral acid is present, however, the ionization of the oxalic acid is much reduced by the high concentration of the H^{+} ions from the strong acid, the formation of the undissociated acid lessens the concentration of the C_{2}O_{4}^{--} ions in solution, more of the oxalate passes into solution to re-establish equilibrium, and this process repeats itself until all is dissolved.

The oxalate is immediately reprecipitated from such a solution on the addition of OH^{-} ions, which, by uniting with the H^{+} ions of the acids (both the mineral acid and the oxalic acid) to form water, leave the Ca^{++} and C_{2}O_{4}^{--} ions in the solution to recombine to form [CaC_{2}O_{4}], which is precipitated in the absence of the H^{+} ions. It is well at this point to add a small excess of C_{2}O_{4}^{--} ions in the form of ammonium oxalate to decrease the solubility of the precipitate.

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