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A Manual of the Antiquity of Man by J. P. MacLean

[Illustration: IDEAL RESTORATION OF THE NEANDERTHAL MAN.]

A MANUAL OF THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN.

BY

J. P. MACLEAN.

"In order to know what Man is, we ought to know what Man has been." --PROF. MAX MUeLLER.

_REVISED EDITION._

BOSTON: UNIVERSALIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, 37 _Cornhill_, 1877.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by J. P. MACLEAN,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PREFACE.

In lecturing upon the Antiquity of Man I have found the minds of the people prepared to receive the evidences, and ready to believe the conclusions of the geologists. I have felt the need of a popular work to place in the hands of the public, that would be both instructive and welcome. The works of Lyell and Lubbock are too elaborate and too expensive to meet the popular need. My object has been to give an outline of the subject sufficient to afford a reasonable acquaintance with the facts connected with the new science, to such as desire the information but cannot pursue it further, and to serve as a manual for those who intend to become more proficient.

As the Unity of Language and the Unity of the Race are so closely connected with the subject, I have added the two chapters on these questions, hoping they will be acceptable to the reader. It was my intention to have written a more extended chapter on the relation of the Holy Scriptures to this subject, but was forced to condense, as I had done in other chapters, in order not to transcend the proposed limits of the book.

In the preparation of this work I have freely used Lyell's "Antiquity of Man" and "Principles of Geology," Lubbock's "Pre-Historic Times," Buchner's "Man in the Past, Present, and Future," Figuier's "Primitive Man," Wilson's "Pre-Historic Man," Keller's "Lake-Dwellings," the works of Charles Darwin, Dana's "Manual of Geology," Huxley's "Man's Place in Nature," Prichard's "Natural History of Man," Pouchet's "Plurality of the Human Race," and others, referred to in the margins.

I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Frank Cushing, for the ideal restoration of the Neanderthal Man. The engraving was made especially for this work. The references to Buchner are from his work entitled, "Man in the Past, Present and Future."

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. PAGE Interest in the subject--Influence of Lyell--Usher's Chronology--Aime Boue first to proclaim the high antiquity of man--Dr. Schmerling the founder--Boucher de Perthes the apostle--Classifications by Lubbock, Lartet, Renevier, and Westropp--Plan of the work--No Universal Age of Stone, Bronze, or Iron--Epochs not sharply defined--Outlines of History--Superstitious Notions--Skull from Constatt--Stone hatchet from London--Cavern of Gailenreuth--Axes from Hoxne--Human jaw from Maestricht--Skeleton from Lahr-- "Reliquiae Diluvianae"--Discoveries by Tournal and Christol-- Engis and Enghihoul Caverns--Schmerling's labors--Lyell's opinions--Arrow mark on skull of Cave-Bear--Boucher de Perthes and the Valley of the Somme--Jaw of Moulin-Quignon-- Kent's Hole--Fossil Man of Denise--Remains from the Manzanares--Cave of Aurignac--Lyell declares his belief-- Lake-Dwellings of Switzerland Neanderthal Skull--Caverns near Torquay--Cave of Massat--Cave of Lourdes--Caverns of Ariege--Tertiary at St. Prest--Implements near Gosport-- Bones from Colmar--Implements near Bournemouth--Trou de la Naulette--Bones near Savonia--Reindeer Station--Foreland Cliff--Fossil Man of Mentone--Other Discoveries near Mentone. 11


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