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A Manual of Ancient History by A. H. L. Heeren

A Compendium of Ancient and Modern Geography

[Reprinted in 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1830, revised. Here, too, for the benefit of the English reader may be mentioned:

RENNEL'S _Treatise on the Comparative Geography of Western Asia, with an atlas_. London, 1831, 2 vols. 8vo.; published since the author's death. And the learned and valuable volumes of Dr. CRAMER, principal of New Inn Hall, and public orator of the University of Oxford; they are,

_Geographical and Historical Description of Ancient Greece, with a map, and plan of Athens._ Oxford, 1826, 3 vols. 8vo.

_Geographical and Historical Description of Ancient Italy, with a map._ Oxford, 1826, 2 vols. 8vo.

_Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor, with a map._ Oxford, 1832, 2 vols. 8vo.

The maps which accompany these works approach very nearly to perfection.

As useful compendiums, there are:

_An Introduction to Ancient Geography, with copious indexes of Ancient and Modern Names_, by PETER ED. LAURENT, teacher in the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth. Oxford, 1813, 8vo.

_A Compendium of Ancient and Modern Geography, for the use of Eton School; illustrating the most interesting points in History, Poetry, and Fable; preceded by an Introduction to the

study of Astronomy, and containing plans of Athens, Rome, Syracuse, and numerous diagrams explanatory of the motions of the heavenly bodies_, by AARON ARROWSMITH, Hydrographer to the King, 1 vol. 8vo., with or without a copious index. London, 1830.

BUTLER'S (Dr. SAM.) _Sketch of Ancient and Modern Geography_. Seventh edition, 8vo. Also his _Atlas of Ancient Geography_, consisting of twenty-one coloured maps, with a complete accentuated index. 8vo.]

We are indebted to d'Anville for the best charts of ancient geography: _Atlas Orbis antiqui_, twelve leaves, fol.

[The Eton Comparative Atlas of Ancient and Modern Geography, with the index, published in several sizes; and the Maps published by the Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge, are very useful and correct.]

15. Ancient history may be treated either ethnographically, that is, according to separate nations and states; or synchronistically, that is, according to certain general epochs. Each of these methods has its advantages and its disadvantages. The two, however, may be combined, and formed into one system; and as this seems the most convenient, it has been adopted in the present work, which is accordingly divided as follows:

FIRST BOOK.--History of the ancient Asiatic and African states and kingdoms anterior to Cyrus, or to the rise of the Persian monarchy, about the year B. C. 560: comprising little more than insulated fragments.

SECOND BOOK.--History of the Persian monarchy, from B. C. 560 to 330.

THIRD BOOK.--History of the Grecian states, both in Greece and other parts, to the time of Alexander, B. C. 336.

FOURTH BOOK.--History of the Macedonian monarchy, and of the kingdoms which arose out of its division, until they merged into the Roman empire.

FIFTH BOOK.--History of the Roman state, both as a commonwealth and a monarchy, until the fall of the western empire, A. D. 476.

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