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A Manual of Ancient History by A. H. L. Heeren

Its greatest length from north to south is 600 geogr


# J. D. MICHAELIS, _Translation of the Books of Esdras, Nehemiah, and Maccabees_, contains in the observations several historic discussions of high importance.

# J. REMOND, _Essay towards a history of the spread of Judaism, from Cyrus to the total decline of the Jewish state_. Leipzig, 1789. The industrious work of a young scholar.

To the works enumerated p. 34, 35, must be added, for the more ancient history of the Jews:

J. L. BAUER, _Manual of the history of the Hebrew nation, from its rise to the destruction of its state_. Nuremberg, 1800, 2 parts, 8vo. As yet the best critical introduction, not only to the history, but also to the antiquities of the nation.

# In the works of J. J. HESS, belonging to this subject, namely, _History of Moses_; _History of Joshua_; _History of the Rulers of Judah_, 2 parts; _History of the Kings of Judah and Israel_: the history is throughout considered in a theocratic point of view.

* * * * *

FIFTH BOOK.

HISTORY OF THE ROMAN STATE.

_Introductory remarks on the Geography of Ancient Italy._

Italy constitutes

a peninsula, bounded on the north by the Alps, on the west and south by the Mediterranean, and on the east by the Adriatic sea. Its greatest length from north to south is 600 geogr. miles; its greatest breadth, taken at the foot of the Alps, is 320 geogr. miles; but that of the peninsula, properly so called, is not more than 120 geogr. miles. Superficial contents, 81,920 sq. geogr. miles. The principal mountain range is that of the Apennines, which, diverging occasionally to the west, or east, stretch from north to south through Central and Lower Italy. In the earlier times of Rome, these mountains were covered with thick forests. Main streams: the Padus (Po) and the Athesis, (Adige,) both of which discharge their waters in the Adriatic; and the Tiberis, (Tiber,) which falls into the Mediterranean. The soil, particularly in the plains, is one of the most fertile in Europe; on the other hand, many of the mountain tracts admit but of little cultivation. In that period when the Mediterranean was the grand theatre of trade, Italy, by her situation, seemed destined to become the principal mart of Europe; but she never in ancient times availed herself sufficiently of this advantage.

It is divided into _Upper_ Italy, from the Alps to the small rivers of Rubicon and Macra; (this part, however, of Italy, until presented with the right of citizenship under Caesar, was, according to the Roman political geography, considered as a province;) into _Central_ Italy, from the Rubicon and the Macra down to the Silarus and Frento; and into _Lower_ Italy from those rivers to the southern land's end.

I. _Upper Italy comprises the two countries, Gallia Cisalpina and Liguria._


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