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A Manual of Ancient History by A. H. L. Heeren

On this side the Euphrates 2ndly


6.

Southern Asia, or the regions from the 40th degree of N. lat. to about the equator.--Its natural features altogether different from those of central Asia. The great advantages of these regions compared with all other parts of the earth, in possessing a soil and climate highly favourable for agriculture; and an abundance of various costly productions. To these circumstances may be attributed, 1st. The adoption of fixed habitations and political associations in these countries, from the earliest times. 2ndly. Their becoming the principal seat of trade, from the infancy of civilization to the discovery of America.

Reflections upon the rise of political associations.--Whether, according to the general opinion, they were produced solely by agriculture and the possession of land; or, whether religion, by which I mean the common worship of one divinity as the national god, (communia sacra,) was not the main bond which united the earliest states of antiquity?--How shall we account for the very remarkable fact, that in the earliest civil societies in the world, the priesthood is generally found to be a ruling caste.--Reflections on early trade, particularly that of the east, before it was changed, by the discovery of America and the new passage to India, from a land trade to a sea trade.--Observations upon ancient commercial routes across Asia.--The banks of the large rivers destined by nature to become the seats of commerce

for the interior; on the Oxus, Bactra and Maracanda, (Samarcand;) on the Euphrates and Tigris, Babylon.--The sea shores on the western coast of Asia Minor and Phoenicia, pointed out also by nature as places of commerce;--line of Grecian and Phoenician factories.

7. Division of southern Asia. 1st. South-western Asia, from the Mediterranean to the Indus; 2nd. South-eastern Asia, from the Indus to the eastern ocean.

A. South-western Asia is again subdivided into the countries--1st. on this side the Euphrates--2ndly. between the Euphrates and Tigris--3rdly. between the Tigris and the Indus.

1. _Countries on this side the Euphrates._

(_a_) The peninsula of Asia Minor (Natolia). Principal rivers: the Halys and Sangarius. Countries: three towards the west, Mysia, Lydia, Caria. Along the shore, the Greek seaports of Phocaea, Ephesus, Miletus, Smyrna, Halicarnassus, etc. Inland, the cities of Sardes in Lydia, of Pergamus in Mysia.

Three towards the south, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Cilicia, with its capital Tarsus.

Three towards the north, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Pontus; with the Greek ports of Heraclea, Amisus, and Sinope. Two inland, Phrygia, together with Galatia and the capital cities of Gordium and Celaenae; Cappadocia, with the city of Mazaca.

(_b_) Islands along the coast of Asia Minor: Lesbos, with the city of Mitylene; Chios, Samos, Cos, Rhodes, with cities of the same name.

(_c_) Syria, together with Phoenicia and Palestine. 1st. Syria, properly so called. Cities: Damascus, Emessa, Heliopolis, (Baalbec). In the desert, Palmyra. 2nd. Phoenicia, a mountainous tract, extending along the shore. Mountains: Libanus and Antilibanus. Cities: Tyre, on an island opposite the ancient Tyre, which was situate upon the mainland; Sidon, Byblus, Berytus, Tripolis, Aradus. 3rd. Palestine. Mountains: Carmel, Tabor. River: Jordan, which discharges its waters into the Dead sea. Division of Palestine; first, according to the twelve tribes; afterwards into the provinces, of Judaea, capital Jerusalem: of Samaria; cities, Samaria, Sichem: and of Galilee.


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