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A Manual of Ancient History by A. H. L. Heeren

Boundaries on the north mount Scodrus


Gallia Cisalpina, or Togata (Lombardy, see above, p. 315). But as from the time of Caesar the inhabitants enjoyed all the privileges of Roman citizens, it may be reckoned as forming part of Italy.

IV. Sicilia; divided into Syracuse and Lilybaeum.

V. Sardinia and Corsica, see above, p. 320.

VI. The Insulae Britannicae (British islands); but of these, only England and the southern part of Scotland were reduced into a Roman province in the time of Nero, under the name of Britannia Romana. Principal rivers: Tamesis (Thames) and Sabrina (Severn). Cities: Eboracum (York) in the north, Londinum (London) in the south. Into Scotland, Britannia Barbaria, or Caledonia, the Romans often penetrated, but without being ably completely to conquer it; and as for Hibernia, Ierne (Ireland), it was visited by Roman merchants, but never by Roman legions.

VII. The countries south of the Danube, which were subdued under Augustus and formed into the following provinces: 1. Vindelicia. Boundaries: on the north the Danube, on the east the Aenus (Inn), on the west Helvetia, on the south Rhaetia. Principal tribes: Vindelici, Brigantii, etc. Principal towns: Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), Brigantia (Bregenz). 2. Rhaetia. Boundaries: on the north Vindelicia, on the east the Inn and the Salza, on the south the chain of the Alps from Lacus Verbanus (Lago Maggiore) to Belinzona,

on the west Helvetia. Principal tribe: Rhaeti. Principal towns: Curia (Chur), Veldidena (Wilden), Tridentum (Trent). 3. Noricum. Boundaries: on the north the Danube, on the west the Aenus, on the east the mountain Cetius (Kahlenberg), and on the south the Julian Alps and the Savus (Save). Principal tribes: Boii. Cities: Jovavum (Salzburg), Boiodurum (Passau). 4. Pannonia Superior. Boundaries: on the north and east the Danube, on the south the Arrabo (Raab), on the west the mountain Cetius. Cities: Vindobona (Vienna), Caruntum. 5. Pannonia Inferior. Boundaries: on the north the Arrabo, on the east the Danube, on the south the Savus. Cities: Taurunum (Belgrade), Mursa (Esseg), and Sirmium. 6. Moesia Superior. Boundaries: on the north the Danube, on the south Mount Scardus, or Scodrus, on the west Pannonia, on the east the river Cebrus (Ischia). Cities: Singidunum (Semlin), and Naissus (Nissa). 7. Moesia Inferior. Boundaries: on the north the Danube, on the west the Cebrus, on the south mount Haemus (the Balkan), and on the east the Pontus Euxinus. Cities: Odessus (Varna), Tomi (Tomisvar).

VIII. Illyricum, in its most extensive signification, comprised all the provinces south of the Danube, together with Rhaetia and Dalmatia: but Illyricum Proper comprehends only the lands along the coast of the Adriatic, from Rhaetia in Italy to the river Drinus, and easterly to the Savus. Principal towns: Salona, Epidaurus (near the present Ragusa), Scodra (Scutari).

IX. Macedonia. Boundaries: on the north mount Scodrus, on the south the Cambunian mountains, on the west the Adriatic, and on the east the Aegean sea. Rivers: the Nestus, Strymon, and Halyacmon, which fall into the Aegean sea, and the Apsus and Aoeus, which fall into the Adriatic. Principal tribes: Paeones in the north, Pieres and Mygdones in the south. Principal towns: Pydna, Pella, Thessalonica, Philippi, with other Greek colonies (see above, p. 164). Dyrrachium and Apollonia on the western coast.

X. Thrace had for some time kings of her own, though dependent on Rome, and was first reduced to a Roman province under Claudius. Boundaries: on the north Mount Haemus, on the west the Nestus, on the south and east the sea. River: Hebrus. Principal tribes: Triballi, Bessi, and Odrysae. Cities: Byzantium, Apollonia, Beroea.

XI. Achaia (Greece), see above, p. 131.

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