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The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kash

North of Feudal Tanawal is Agror

some quiet pretty stretch of

this same Kunhar. There are side glens, one of which opposite Naran contains the beautiful Safarmulk Lake. Near the top of the main glen the Lulusar Lake at a height of 11,167 feet and with an average depth of 150 feet is passed on the left. In the lower part of the glen much maize is grown. As one ascends almost the last crop to be seen is a coarse barley sown in June and reaped in August. Where the trees and the crops end the rich grass pastures begin. Kagan covers between one-third and one-fourth of the whole district. The Siran flows through the beautiful Bhogarmang Glen, at the foot of which it receives from the west the drainage of the Konsh Glen. Forcing its way through the rough Tanawal hills, it leaves Feudal Tanawal and Badhnak on its right, and finally after its junction with the Dor flows round the north of the Gandgarh Range and joins the Indus below Torbela. The bare Gandgarh Hills run south from Torbela parallel with the Indus. The Dor rises in the hills to the south of Abbottabad and drains the Haripur plain. A range of rough hills divides the Dor valley from that of the Haro, which again is separated from Rawalpindi by the Khanpur Range. To the west of the Siran the Unhar flows through Agror and Feudal Tanawal, and joins the Indus a little above Amb. Irrigation cuts are taken from all these streams, and the irrigated cultivation is often of a very high character. The best cultivation of the district is in the Haripur plain and the much smaller Orash and Pakhli
plains and in the Haro valley. There is much unirrigated cultivation in the first, and it is generally secure except in the dry tract in the south-west traversed by the new railway from Sarai Kala. The little Orash plain below Abbottabad is famous for its maize and the Pakhli plain for its rice.

Feudal Tanawal is a very rough hilly country between the Siran on the east and the Black Mountain and the river Indus on the west. It is the appanage of the Khans of Amb and Phulra.

North of Feudal Tanawal is Agror. In 1891 the rights of the last Khan were declared forfeit for abetment of raids by trans-bordermen.

There are fine forests in Hazara, but unfortunately the _deodar_ is confined to the Kagan Glen and the Upper Siran. Nathiagali, the summer headquarters of the Chief Commissioner, is in the Dungagali Range. The Serai Kala-Srinagar railway will run through Hazara. There is a good mule road from Murree to Abbottabad through the Galis.

2. _Tribal Territory_

[Illustration: Fig. 133. Sir George Roos Keppel.]

Feudal Tanawal mentioned above occupies the southern corner of the tract of independent tribal territory lying between the Hazara border and the Indus. North of Tanawal on the left bank of the river a long narrow chain known as the Black Mountain rises in its highest peaks to a height of nearly 10,000 feet. The western slopes are occupied by Hasanzais, Akazais, and Chagarzais, who are Pathans belonging to the great Yusafzai clan, and these three sections also own lands on the right bank of the Indus. They have been very troublesome neighbours to the British Government. The eastern slopes of the Black Mountain are occupied by Saiyyids and Swatis, and the latter also hold the glens lying further north, the chief of which is Allai.

[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

The mountainous tract on the Peshawar border lying to the west of Tanawal and the territory of the Black Mountain tribes formed part of the ancient Udyana, and its archaeological remains are of much interest. It is drained by the Barandu, a tributary of the Indus. Its people are mainly Yusafzai Pathans, the principal section being the Bunerwals. These last bear a good character for honesty and courage, but are slaves to the teachings of their _mullas_. The Yusafzais have been bad neighbours. The origin of the trouble is of old standing, dating back to the welcome given by the tribesmen in 1824 to a band of Hindustani fanatics, whose leader was Saiyyid Ahmad Shah of Bareilly. Their headquarters, first at Sitana and afterwards at Malka, became Caves of Adullam for political refugees and escaped criminals, and their favourite pastime was the kidnapping of Hindu shopkeepers. In 1863 a strong punitive expedition under Sir Neville Chamberlain suffered heavy losses before it succeeded in occupying the Ambela Pass. The door being forced the Yusafzais themselves destroyed Malka as a pledge of their submission. Our political relations with the Yusafzais are managed by the Assistant Commissioner at Mardan.

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