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A Report on Washington Territory by Ruffner

TRANSCRIBER NOTES:

Words contained within underscores indicate that they were italized in the original. Example: _First_.

Additional notes can be found at the end of this project.

Some of the tables have been modified to fit in the space allowed.

[Illustration: UPPER SNOQUALMIE FALLS, 120 FEET HIGH.]

A REPORT ON WASHINGTON TERRITORY

BY W. H. RUFFNER, LL.D.

ILLUSTRATED

[Illustration]

NEW YORK SEATTLE, LAKE SHORE AND EASTERN RAILWAY 1889

COPYRIGHT, 1889 BY SEATTLE, LAKE SHORE AND EASTERN RAILWAY

PRESS OF FLEMING . BREWSTER & ALLEY . NEW YORK

PREFACE.

The matter of this Report on Washington Territory is so arranged that the reader, by referring to the table of contents, can turn at once to any particular topic. The report is divided into six chapters, to wit:

_First_, Itinerary, which mentions briefly the places I visited, and the dates.

_Second_, A General Account of Washington Territory, which includes something of its History, its Location, and its great Pacific Market. Under the last of these heads is given a large body of facts which will surprise any one who has not studied the peculiar commercial advantages of our Pacific States, and above all, of Puget Sound. There is also given some account of the topography, climate, soils and natural vegetation, with special stress upon the great forests of the Puget Sound basin. The lumber industry is next described, followed by a somewhat full account of agricultural products, especially those of the Great Plain of the Columbia River. Finally, in this division, something is said of the available labor of the country.

_Third_, Geology of Washington Territory. In one division I endeavor to give the Historical and Structural Geology of the Territory, and in another division I give the Economic Geology. In the latter I describe the beds of coal, iron ore, granite, limestone and marble, and also the ores of the precious and base metals as they have been discovered in all parts of the Territory.

_Fourth_, the special interests of the Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway are discussed. I begin with Seattle, to show its advantages as a terminus. I then say something of the terminal property owned by this Company, and of the suburban interests of many kinds, such as residences, parks, gardens and industrial works which are likely to grow up along the first twenty miles of this railway. I then take up the great timber interest along the line, which, in its magnitude and value, will give this road pre-eminence over all others. The agricultural products along the line are next spoken of. I then take up the great coal interest which will minister so largely to the road--an interest whose magnitude can be readily inferred from the fact that this railway will pass through, or near, five and perhaps six distinct coal fields between Puget Sound and the Columbia River. I next show the advantages which this road will have in the development of the great magnetic iron-ore beds on both sides of the Cascade Mountains, and also the remarkable juxtaposition of ore, flux and fuel, which are found in the Snoqualmie Valley. Attention is also called to the business which is likely to arise from the limestones, marble and granite for building and monumental purposes. Finally, I call attention to the great advantage which this road will have, or, at least, may have, in controlling the large and increasing business connected with the mines of precious and base metals, which are being opened north and east of this line.


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