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A School History of the United States by McMaster

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A SCHOOL HISTORY

OF THE

UNITED STATES

BY

JOHN BACH McMASTER

PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

1897

PREFACE

It has long been the custom to begin the history of our country with the discovery of the New World by Columbus. To some extent this is both wise and necessary; but in following it in this instance the attempt has been made to treat the colonial period as the childhood of the United States; to have it bear the same relation to our later career that the account of the youth of a great man should bear to that of his maturer years, and to confine it to the narration of such events as are really necessary to a correct understanding of what has happened since 1776.

The story, therefore, has been restricted to the discoveries, explorations, and settlements within the United States by the English, French, Spaniards, and Dutch; to the expulsion of the French by the English; to the planting of the thirteen colonies on the Atlantic seaboard; to the origin and progress of the quarrel which ended with the rise of thirteen sovereign free and independent states, and to the growth of such political institutions as began in colonial times. This period once passed, the long struggle for a government followed till our present Constitution--one of the most remarkable political instruments ever framed by man--was adopted, and a nation founded.

Scarcely was this accomplished when the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon involved us in a struggle, first for our neutral rights, and then for our commercial independence, and finally in a second war with Great Britain. During this period of nearly five and twenty years, commerce and agriculture flourished exceedingly, but our internal resources were little developed. With the peace of 1815, however, the era of industrial development commences, and this has been treated with great--though it is believed not too great--fullness of detail; for, beyond all question, _the_ event of the world's history during the nineteenth century is the growth of the United States. Nothing like it has ever before taken place.

To have loaded down the book with extended bibliographies would have been an easy matter, but quite unnecessary. The teacher will find in Channing and Hart's _Guide to the Study of American History_ the best digested and arranged bibliography of the subject yet published, and cannot afford to be without it. If the student has time and disposition to read one half of the reference books cited in the footnotes of this history, he is most fortunate.

JOHN BACH McMASTER.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

I. EUROPE FINDS AMERICA II. THE SPANIARDS IN THE UNITED STATES III. ENGLISH, DUTCH, AND SWEDES ON THE SEABOARD IV. THE PLANTING OF NEW ENGLAND V. THE MIDDLE AND SOUTHERN COLONIES VI. THE FRENCH IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY VII. THE INDIANS VIII. THE STRUGGLE FOR NEW FRANCE AND LOUISIANA IX. LIFE IN THE COLONIES IN 1763 X. "LIBERTY, PROPERTY, AND NO STAMPS" XI. THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE XII. UNDER THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION XIII. MAKING THE CONSTITUTION XIV. OUR COUNTRY IN 1790 XV. THE RISE OF PARTIES XVI. THE STRUGGLE FOR NEUTRALITY XVII. STRUGGLE FOR "FREE TRADE AND SAILORS' RIGHTS" XVIII. THE WAR FOR COMMERCIAL INDEPENDENCE XIX. PROGRESS OF OUR COUNTRY BETWEEN 1790 AND 1815 XX. SETTLEMENT OF OUR BOUNDARIES XXI. THE RISING WEST XXII. THE HIGHWAYS OF TRADE AND COMMERCE XXIII. POLITICS FROM 1824 TO 1845 XXIV. EXPANSION OF THE SLAVE AREA XXV. THE TERRITORIES BECOME SLAVE SOIL XXVI. PROGRESS IN THE UNITED STATES BETWEEN 1840 AND 1860 XXVII. WAR FOR THE UNION, 1861-1865 XXVIII. WAR ALONG THE COAST AND ON THE SEA XXIX. THE COST OF THE WAR XXX. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SOUTH XXXI. THE NEW WEST (1860-1870) XXXII. POLITICS FROM 1868 TO 1880 XXXIII. GROWTH OF THE NORTHWEST XXXIV. MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS XXXV. POLITICS SINCE 1880


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