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A Vindication of England's Policy with Regard to t

A VINDICATION OF ENGLAND'S POLICY WITH REGARD TO THE OPIUM TRADE.

BY C. R. HAINES.

LONDON: W. H. ALLEN & CO., 13 WATERLOO PLACE, PALL MALL. S.W.

1884.

(_All rights reserved._)

LONDON: PRINTED BY W. H. ALLEN AND CO., 13 WATERLOO PLACE. S.W.

_Victrix causa deis placuit sed victa Catoni._

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

About two years ago I had occasion to go thoroughly into the question of the opium-trade between India and China. Up to that time, knowing practically nothing about the matter except what the Anti-Opium Society and their supporters had to say on the subject, I was as zealous an opponent of the traffic as any of them could wish. But as soon as I came to read both sides of the question, and consult original authorities, I felt myself forced, much against my will at first, to abandon my previous opinions. And I may as well say at once that I have no personal interest whatever, direct or indirect, in the maintenance or defence of the traffic. My only wish has been to treat the question on the broad principles of practical justice, and not in deference to that cosmopolitan patriotism which would have us love our neighbour not indeed as ourselves, but much more than ourselves. The object therefore of this little work is to clear the fair name of England from the foul aspersions cast upon it by a comparatively small body of well-meaning but misguided philanthropists.

C. R. HAINES.

DOVER, _June 16, 1884_.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The Anti-Opium Society.--Its Origin.--By whom supported.--How far successful.--Its Conclusions not to be accepted.--The Indictment against England pp. 1-6

The original _habitat_ of the Poppy-Plant.--Opium known in China from the earliest times.--Not consumed much till Eighteenth Century.--First imported by Portuguese.--By East India Company in 1773.--Prohibited in 1796.--War in 1839.--Causes of War.--Treaty of Nankin.--No mention of Opium.--Lord Palmerston's instructions on the subject.-- War of 1856 and 1860.--Treaty of Tientsin.--Opium legalized.--Native growth long-established in spite of Edicts.--Reason of this.--Chefoo Convention pp. 6-37

Opium a powerful Medicine.--Its Alkaloid constituents.--How used.--Distinction between eating and smoking it.-- Consumed in India, Turkey, Armenia, England pp. 37-52

Indian Opium of two kinds, Bengal and Malwa.--Monopoly in 1773.--Vacillations in Policy.--Hence fluctuations in Revenue.--Reserve Stock.--Land under Cultivation.--Chests exported.--Policy towards Native States.--Prices.-- Quality.--Competition with Chinese Opium pp. 52-59


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